Social wasps build a variety of nests, but most resemble what is seen here and are started by the queen wasp. As the colony grows, so does the nest through repeating modular cells. Most species of social wasps build their combs horizontally with cells located on the bottom of each one. There are a few species of wasps which hang their combs vertically with the cells facing to one side. These cells are primarily used for brood rearing. Some wasps cover the cells with a paper envelope built around the combs as added insulation. There are air pockets in between each paper sheet of the nest which help in maintaining a comfortable temperature inside the next.
Efficient & Simple Nests
The building process in termite mounds appears to be guided by a checmical signal that helps the termites self-organize. Workers emit a 'trail pheromone' that induces others to follow in their footsteps, recruiting them to the construction site close to the queen. The pheromone discourages the termites from depositing their pellets on the trail itself, so they start to make deposits alongside it that start pillars that are eventually transformed into walls and then galleries.
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